The Apparatus Element and its Surrounding System

Where there has been emendation of the text by a scribe (contemporary or non-contemporary), there are a number of alternatives. For complex emendations that give rise to a semantic alteration, we use the <app> tag. 

If the  emendation is not stematically significant, we merely describe the appearance. This would, for example, cover cases in which a scribe has made an orthographic alteration. If the emendation is stemmatically significant AND it occurs on top of pre-existing text, then we use the <app> tag.

Principles for using the apparatus tag

The apparatus <app> tag permits users of this edition to see how changes to the manuscript appear.

When we use the <app> tag we need to imagine two types of corrections:

Overlay corrections:

These are emendations made by scribes on top of the previous text, i.e. both the original and the correction occupy the same physical space. The value of overlays will be stated with one segment and two nested segments:
    <seg type="…"><seg type="1">…</seg><seg type="2">…</seg></seg>

a) First seg will indicate how the modification appears 

• Overwritten               <seg type="overwritten">

• Erased                       <seg type="er">

• Scraped                     <seg type="scr">

b) Further nested segments occurs, where <seg type="1"> shows the initial text, and <seg type="2"> the correcting ink appearing to be written over the initial text.

Such emendations can be identified, even though they are judged as non-stematically significant. 


Non-overlay corrections

These are emendations made by scribes which are physically placed in a different space from the text they are correcting. They can be:

• Underdotted
• Crammed
• Interlinear
• Underlined
• Stricken 

The text that is intended to be corrected would have a rend value of "ud" , "ul" or "str", if it has been marked at all. If it has not been marked, then the <seg rend=> element will be entirely absent.

o<seg rend="…">u</seg><seg rend= "…" >b</seg>o

Incorporate whichever rendition the modified letters show.

For example, in the following case, the interlinear "s" has been added between the letters:

fa<hi rend="int">s</hi>ta

We also use the <hi rend=""> tag for text which is 

underlined: <hi rend="ul">text that is underlined</hi>

underdotted: <hi rend="ud">text that is underdotted</hi>

struck through: <hi rend="strike">text that is struck through</hi>

Use of the <app> tag: stematically significant overlay emendations

The guiding principle of use of the full <app> tag (literal, original and modified reading) 
is that the change must be significant for collation: that is to say, introduces stemmatic variation 
within the item(s) affected by scribal markings. 

Stemmatic variation with <rdg="lit"><rdg="orig"><rdg="mod">

Where the modification is judged to be stematicallly significant, we will incorporate 
three elements into the apparatus. 

  • <rdg type="orig">: records how the text read before the change
  • <rdg type="mod">: records how the text read after the change

In <rdg type="lit"> we encode the literal sequence as found in the document, including marks that might be interpreted by the reader as clues indicating how the text should be read. 

In <rdg type="orig"> we include what we interpret to have been the original reading intended by the scribe, that is, the initial text. By definition this reading was intended by the scribe who wrote the surrounding text, so there is no need to provide more information.

In <rdg type="mod"> we include the modified text, the one that represents a latter stage in the document (a later stage in reference to <rdg type="orig">). This text might have been writen by the same scribe as the surrounding text or it might be a correction by a later hand. If the correcction is by the same hand or a hand that is indistinguishable from it there is no need for added tagging. However, if the hand is a different one, we should add @resp to specify this fact. In such cases we encode <rdg type="mod" resp="1"> for the first corrector and so on and so forth.

       Example:    the original scribe records the item “quarto”; this is later modified to “quanto”       

<app><rdg type="lit">qua<seg type="overwritten"><seg type="1">r</seg><seg type="2">n</seg></seg>to</rdg>

<rdg type="orig">quarto</rdg>

<rdg type="mod">quanto</rdg></app>

The seg type will be one of three: "overwritten" , "scr" or "er" .

<rdg type="lit">qua<seg rend="…">r</seg><seg rend= "…" >n</seg>to</rdg>
<rdg type="orig">quarto</rdg>
<rdg type="mod">quanto</rdg>

Incorporate whichever rendition the modified letters show.

Marginal emendations  

The place element can be incorporated into the <seg> element indicating the correcting hand.

       <seg rend="…">…</seg><seg place=…>…</seg>

The <place=> values would be "margin-left" or "margin-right". Additional marginalia tags include "tm" (top margin centre), "tl" (top margin, left), "tr" (top margin, right), "bm" (bottom margin), "bl" (bottom margin, left) and "br" (bottom margin, right).

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